Battle of Appomattox Court House
(Lee's Surrender)
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Location: Appomattox Court House, VA
Dates: April 9, 1865
Union Commander:  Ulysses S. Grant, Lieutenant General
Confederate Commander:  Robert E. Lee, General

Battle Summary:
After spending months bottled up at Petersburg and Richmond, U.S. Grant finally dislodged the Army of Northern Virginia, in early April 1865.  After pushing Lee out of his trenches in Petersburg, Grant's cavalry lieutenant, Major General Phil Sheridan, cornered Lee at Five Forks, inflicting a terrible loss on Lee's already depleted army, with losses near 3,000.  At this point, Lee started his retreat along the Appomattox River.

Battles and skirmishes followed at Amelia Court House, Jetersville, Deatonville and Sailor's Creek.  The battle of Sailor's Creek was terrible loss for the Confederates in battlefield casualties and especially in troops surrendered - many of which were general officers.

On April 8, Union forces under Major General George Custer, beat back Confederate forces under Confederate Brig. General Lindsay Walker who was guarding the train station at Appomattox.  This defeat left Robert E. Lee with almost no options as there was no way he could feed his troops.

On April 9, Robert E. Lee, surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant, thus ending the rebellion in Virginia and much of the east.  During nine days of fighting, Lee lost close to 6,000 men, killed and wounded, and surrendered his Army.  U.S. Grant also had approximately 6,000 killed and wounded.

Campaign: Appomattox

Outcome: U.S. Victory (Confederate surrender)

Troop Strengths
Union: 63,285
Confederate: 31,900

Casualties (estimated):
Union: 164 (killed, wounded or missing/captured)
Confederate: 30,000 (killed, wounded or missing/captured)

Battle Aftermath:
While Lee desperately tried to reach North Carolina, to unite with forces under Joseph Johnston, U.S. Grant continued to flank him, shutting off his escape route south.  As Lee had no means of provisioning, or feeding, his army, he was left with three choices.  Cut his way out (which would have very high casualties), scatter the troops into the countryside (guerilla warfare) or surrender.  Several of his lieutenants, including general John B. Gordon, were in favor of cutting their way out.  Lee's head of artillery, General E. Porter Alexander, was in favor of taking to the hills.  Lee, determined not to squander his men by forcing his way out, or indefinitely prolonging the conflict chose to surrender. 
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