Battle of Glendale
(also called Frayser's Farm)
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Location: Glendale, VA
Date: June 30, 1862
Union Commander: George McClellan, Major General
Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee, General

Battle Summary:
After engaging CS General
Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, at Savage's Station, US Major General George B. McClellan continued his retreat toward the James River.  McClellan's Army of the Potomac was strung out over Elko Road and the Charles City Road, with the lead elements moving towards Frayser's Farm, along the Willis Church Road.

Lee, hoping to crush the retreating Army of the Potomac, while it was spread out, devised a complicated tactical plan.  Ordering CS Major General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, to pursue the rear guard, of the Army of the Potomac, from White Oak Bridge, CS Major General James Longstreet, would push due east, along the Darbytown Road, attacking the center of McClellan's line on Willis Church Road.  CS Major General Benjamin Huger's division would open the offensive pushing east along the Charles City Road.

Unfortunately, Robert E. Lee's complicated plan quickly miscarried.  Jackson's division quickly  ran into trouble, when he approached the White Oak Swamp Creek, where he found the bridge destroyed, by the retreating Federal Army.  Amazingly, with other crossing points within easy reach, Thomas Jackson decided that US Major General William Franklin's VI Corps, operating as the rear guard, was too strong to assault directly.  Instead Jackson opted to open an artillery barrage.  The resulting artillery duel would effectively take "Stonewall" Jackson out of the fight at Glendale.

Benjamin Huger's, division, also ran into difficulties.  Assigned to open the battle at Glendale, his force, approaching Willis Church Road, from the west, along the Charles City Road, would find their path blocked by felled trees, and instead of a coordinated assault, with James Longstreet's division, pushing east on the Darbytown Road, Huger would settle for an artillery action.

Longstreet, hearing Jackson's and Huger's artillery fire, to the north, believed Huger's infantry assault had started, pushed his division into the Federal line along the Willis Church Road.  Longstreet's assault included CS Major General Ambrose Powell Hill's division.  After opening with an artillery barrage, Longstreet's and Hill's division pushed a piecemeal, largely uncoordinated assault into US Brigadier General George McCall's 6,000 man division.  Although within close proximity of Longstreet's assault, on the middle, Longstreet received no support from either Thomas Jackson's division, or Benjamin Huger's division.

Confederate forces did experience some success, breaking the 40,000 man Federal line, as there were gaps in the line.  McCall's line would be breached, however with close support from the II and III Corps, the line was quickly reformed and easily held against Longstreet and Powell's attack. 

In a last feeble attempt, to prevent the Army of the Potomac from reaching the easily defended Malvern Hill, Robert E. Lee sent CS Major General John Magruder's three divisions to support CS Major General Theophilus Holmes' efforts near Malvern Hill.  Unfortunately, Holmes had been pushed aside before Magruder could reach him, allowing the Army of the Potomac to reach Malvern Hill.

Campaign: The Seven Days

Outcome: Union victory

Troop Strengths
Union: 32,000
Confederate: 29,000

Casualties (estimated):
Union: 2,700 (killed, wounded or missing/captured)
Confederate: 3,600 (killed, wounded or missing/captured)

Battle Aftermath:
Robert E Lee's best chance of destroying the Army of the Potomac was lost at Frayser's Farm.  With McClellan's forces spread out, Lee decided on a very complex multi front attack, to crush the Federals.  As in so many other cases, tactics like this failed due to poor communication, impeding proper timing, of the spread out attacking army.  With Benjamin Huger's and Thomas Jackson's proposed infantry attacks reduced to an artillery bombardment, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia would only push two divisions, under Longstreet and Hill, in an uncoordinated fashion, into the strong Northern lines.  Because of Lee's failure, to keep George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac from reaching Malvern Hill, Lee would face another disaster there, which would allow the Union army to reach the relative safety of Harrison's Landing, on the James River, where Abraham Lincoln would force McClellan to withdraw from the peninsula - ending the Seven Days. 
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